National governments, international organizations and other actors already maintain significant physical reserve stocks that can be deployed during pandemic crises. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), USD 7 billion worth of material is held in stock in the US, and consists of items such as vaccines, antibiotics, antivirals, ventilators, infusion pumps and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). CDC partners with third-party logistics companies that maintain some of the stockpiles for them. During the Ebola crisis in West Africa, PPE was a challenge because nobody had a complete overview of what was available.
For the A(H1N1) pandemic influenza response in 2009, CDC collaborated to coordinate the supply chain, and deployed a number of reserve products, such as the antiviral drug peramivir IV, and N95 respirators.
With the support of USAID, WHO also keeps a stockpile of PPE sets for respiratory infection and for Viral Haemorrhagic Fever as a strategic reserve in the United Nations Humanitarian Response Depots (UNHRD) in Accra and Dubai. PPE modules, each containing 500 sets, were pre-positioned in all African countries during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa.
Other stocks, including emergency health kits and modules for response operation support, are managed by the UNHRD team in Dubai. This allows the rapid deployment of infrastructure and related support (electricity, sanitation and shelter) for mobile laboratories and isolation units, along with items needed for the collection and transport of pathology samples.